A fear of mine partially came true. All along, I suspected there might be issues with the fact that my initial attempt at the Security+ exam was canceled, and rescheduled for another date. Sure enough, after waiting the requisite five business days, no information was posted to my CompTIA account. I emailed an incident, and was told I had to send proof of my taking the exam (the score sheet.)
I got back a response that because my exam attempt was canceled and rescheduled, the results had "gotten lost." However, it was quickly rectified, and my certificate finally arrived.
Which is good, as I can now update the DoD.